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EFFECT OF OFFICE LAYOUT ON ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

INTRODUCTION

 

Office layout on organization performance is on reflects the corporate statement of bus. When a management decides to establish an office, it has to carefully define its plan for systematic and scientific segmentation of various departments and equipment for the office.

The reason is that the system arrangement of office equipment leads to availing of maximum benefit from the space available. The office layout is based on the principal of division of labor. If the principal of division of labor is applies, every job of an office can be divided into many sections. All the section may be possible to accommodate in one room or on the same floor. Hence, office layout ensures that fully utilization of operation is high.

Office layout deals with the design and decor of an office. It takes into account all the equipment, supplies, accessories and designs an arrangement needed for the proper functioning of an office.Office layout is the blueprint of the office floor and hence, called the office floor plan. An office layout can be practical only when it makes your employees more efficient in their tasks.

Office layout deals with the design and decor of an office. It takes into account all the equipment, supplies, accessories and designs an arrangement needed for the proper functioning of an office. Office layout is the blueprint of the office floor and hence, called the office floor plan. An office layout can be practical only when it makes your employees more efficient in their tasks.

Office layout can be construed to be the systematic planning of office layout and the arrangement of furniture and other physical facilities. The goals of office layout are layout utilization, facilitating workflow, and minimizing risk (Poudel, 2012). It is the arrangement of furniture,
supplies, equipment, procedures, and things necessary for the work to be don in a reasonable manner within the available layout to achieve maximum performance (Reddy, 2013). The layout of an office is designed to help ensure smooth working performance for official purposes (Catalano, 2018). Table 1 gives detailed summary of some researchers on the physical features/requirements for a good office layout.

Background of the Study

 

The office layout discussion will include the open-plan office vs cellular office debate, and also the matching of the office layout or environment to different work patterns. The difficulty in evaluating the literature is connected to consistency. It is clear that while terms such as open-plan and  office layout are used frequently, there does not appear to be universally accepted definitions of these terms. Similarly, the term productivity is used, although the definition and the means of measurement still remains ill defined (Haynes, 2007a).
The debate in the literature that attempts to link the layout of the office layout or environment and the performance of the occupiers tends to centre around the issue of open-plan offices vs cellular offices (Haynes et al., 2000), and attempts to match the office layout or environment to the work processes (Stallworth & Ward, 1996; Laing et al., 1998; Mawson, 2002). International architectural firm, (Gensler (2005)) highlights the financial impact of poorly designed offices claiming that: Poorly designed offices could be costing British business up to £135 billion every year (Gensler, 2005). Gensler (2005) identified six themes from their research. A summary of these and some of the major findings are highlighted in Table I. The research by Gensler (2005) identifies the impact the office working environment has on improving productivity (potentially a 19 per cent increase) and job satisfaction (79 per cent of respondents linked their environment to their job satisfaction).
The open-plan office layout has dominated workspace in various sectors of the professional world, with advocates claiming that it promotes an interactive and collaborative work environmentDespite the many known benefits of the layout, recent works have also proven that the open
plan office layout can make it difficult for executives to encourage collaborative interaction and productivity amongst their employees (Bernstein, 2018; Gaskell, 2018; Scalco, 2017). As people desire more privacy, open space workplace tend to limit their privacy as they are transparent to anyone in the area and sometimes make them uncomfortable. Haughton (2018) also agreed that open space layout bounds an individual personal space which will lead to decline in face to face interaction and collaboration. With open planned office, employees felt their privacy was invaded as their actions or conversations can be heard by people around them. Factors such as lack of privacy, over hearing colleague conversation and thermal conditions are among the responses given by the employees Tanabe, Nishihara & Haneda, 2015; Been, 2014).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        i

Approval page     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        ii

Certification         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iii

Dedication  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        iv

Acknowledgement         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        v

Table of Contents –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        vi

List of Tables       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xi

Abstract      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        xiii

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        1

1.2 Statement of the Problem  –        –        –        –        –        –        3

1.3 Objectives of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.4 Research Questions –        –        –        –        –        –        –        4

1.5 Statement of Hypotheses  –        –        –        –        –        –        5

1.6 Significant of the Study     –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.7 Scope of the Study  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        6

1.8 Limitations of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        –        7

1.9 Organization of the Study –        –        –        –        –        –        7

1.10 Definition of Terms         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        8

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1.1 Concept and Meaning of Office Layout on Organizational

Performance         –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        11

2.1.2 Concept and Meaning of Organizational Performance   –        13

2.1.3 Objective of Office Layout       –        –        –        –        –        14

2.1.4 Types of Office Layout  –        –        –        –        –        –        15

2.1.5 Benefits of Good Office Layout         –        –        –        –        –        15

2.1.6 Principles of Office Layout      –        –        –        –        –        16

2.1.7 Areas of Decision Making in Office   –        –        –        –        17

2.1.8 The Need for Office Layout     –        –        –        –        –        17

2.1.9 Challenges of Office Layout on Organizational Performance   18

2.1.10 Office Layout Safety and Comfort  –        –        –        –        19

2.1.11 Workflow on Organizational Performance         –        –        –        20

2.1.12 Office Space Utilization on Organizational Performance       –        21

2.1.13 Employee Satisfaction on Organizational Performance         –        21

2.1.14 Favourable Impression of Customers and Organizational

Performance        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        22

2.2 Theoretical Frame Work   –        –        –        –        –        –        23

2.3 Empirical Review    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        24

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research Design and Methodology      –        –        –        –        29

3.1 Research Design      –        –        –        –        –        –        –        29

3.2 Population of the Study    –        –        –        –        –        –        29

3.3 Sampling Technique          –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

3.4 Sample Size    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        30

3.5 Instrumentation       –        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

3.6 Method for Data Analysis –        –        –        –        –        –        32

CHAPTER FOUR

DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

4.0 Data Presentation    –        –        –        –        –        –        –        35

4.1 Analysis of Research Questions  –        –        –        –        –        35

4.1.1 Research Question One  –        –        –        –        –        –        35

4.1.2 Research Question Two –        –        –        –        –        –        36

4.1.3 Research Question Three         –        –        –        –        –        –        37

4.1.4 Research Question Four –        –        –        –        –        –        39

4.2 Test of Hypothesis  –        –        –        –        –        –        –        40

4.1.2 Test of Hypothesis One  –        –        –        –        –        –        40

4.2.2 Test of Hypothesis Two –        –        –        –        –        –        43

4.2.3 Test of Hypothesis Three         –        –        –        –        –        –        46

4.2.4: Test of Hypothesis Four         –        –        –        –        –        –        49

4.3 Discussion of Findings      –        –        –        –        –        –        53

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.0 Preamble        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        55

5.1 Summary of Findings        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        55

5.2 Conclusion     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        –        56

5.3 Recommendation     –        –        –        –        –        –        –        57

References

Appendix

 

 

LIST OF TABLES                                                                 PAGES

Table 3.1: Sample Distribution        –        –        –        –        –        –        31

Table 4.1.1: Responses to Questionnaire Question One         –        –        35

Table 4.1.2: Responses to Questionnaire Question Two        –        –        36

Table 4.1.3: Reponses of Questionnaire Question Three        –        –        38

Table 4.1.4: Responses to Questionnaire Question Four        –        –        39

Table 4.2.1A: Observed Frequency Hypothesis One    –        –        41

Table 4.2.1B: Expected Frequency Table for Hypothesis One         –        42

Table 4.2.1C: Compression of Observed and Expected

Frequency for Hypothesis One         –        –        –        –        –        42

Table 4.2.2A: Observed Frequency Table Hypothesis Two   –        44

Table 4.2.2B: Expected Frequency Table for Hypothesis Two        –        45

Table 4.2.2C: Comparison of Observed and Expected

Frequency for Hypothesis Two        –        –        –        –        –        45

Table 4.2.3A:Observed Frequency Table Hypothesis Three  –        47

Table 4.2.3B: Expected Frequency Table for Hypothesis Three      –        48

Table 4.2.3C: Comparison of Observed and Expected

Frequency for Hypothesis Three       –        –        –        –        48

Table 4.2.4:A Observed Frequency Table Hypothesis Four   –        50

Table 4.2.4B:Expected Frequency for Hypothesis Four         –        –        51

Table 4.2.4C: Comparison of Observed and Expected

Frequencies for Hypothesis Four      –        –        –        –        51

 


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