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PRODUCTION OF CASSAVA OF STARCH FROM CASSAVA

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Cassava was known to the world before the discovery of America.  The Portuguese settlers found the native Indian’s in Brazil growing the cassava plant and Pierre Marty wrote in 1490 that the poisonous roots of a “Yucca” were used in the preparation of bread.  Cassava were introduced to the Westerner const of Africa in the sixteenth centuries while the word topioca derived from tapioca.  The  tipi Indian’s name the liquid which is extracted from the tubers and made into pellets called tipicoet.  The edible tubers, which serves as food in many tropical countries as well as source of starch, it also serves as principal food for workers in minning and industrial centers in most countries too.

Cassava is a single species, manihot esculent crante (synonymous with mainhot utilissmapolhe) it is a tuberous dicotyledous plant, belonging to the botanical family of Euphorbiacca, and like most other members of that family.  The cassava plant contain latifiers and produces latex.  The cassava tuber contains and mainly water and carbohydrate with waters having a greater proportion and a small significant amount of cyanogenic glucoside (prussic acid) of all the constituents of cassava tubers.  Two major factors limits its utilization.  In the form of the fresh (unprocessed) tuber.  The first is that the unprocessed tuber has relatively high amount of prussic acid, which is highly poisonous to human and animal when consumed.  The second factor is that fresh cassava tubers cannot be stored more than a few days after harvest.  The tuber begins to deteriorate rapidly as a result of enzymatic process in the presence of water contained in the tuber.

Cassava (Manihot esculentus, Crantz) is one of the root crops with growing food
and industrial applications. It has been one of the mainstays of several tropical and
sub-tropical countries of the world. According to FAO statistics, the world’s cassava
production had been on the increase from about 176–277 metric tons per year from
the years 2000–2013. Africa contributed between 54 and 58% of the world’s cassava
within these periods (Figure 10.1.1). Nigeria is the largest cassava root producer in the
world. The impacts of cassava on the economies of different countries have changed
in the last two decades. Previously, in some economies, it was an economic crop while
in some others it constituted merely a poverty alleviation crop. Except in a very
few countries, cassava has assumed a prominent position as an industrial crop with
constantly growing utilization avenues.
The roots are highly perishable due to their high moisture content at harvest.
Besides the advantage of preserving the root, processing is also used to add value
to the raw roots by converting them to several primary and secondary products of
varying economic importance. Primary products are those derived from raw roots
without extensive transformation (or modication) of cassava tissue via chemical,
enzymatic and microbial processes. Primary processing of cassava roots merely
involves physical modication to achieve either root preservation, enhanced handling
or storage stability. Such products are either consumed by humans or animals, or
used as raw materials in some other processing applications. These include mainly
chips (dried and boiled), ours and starch. The proportion of cassava root processed
to specic end products differ from region to region. Overall, the extent, direction
and capacity of cassava roots-value addition in any country depends on the level of
economic and technological advancement.
Flours and starch powders are the two major primary products from cassava roots
traded world-wide. They are essentially dried products, often packaged, stored or mar-
keted at low moisture levels (10–14%, wet basis). Numerous studies aimed at improv-
ing their quality and expanding their utilization have been conducted world-wide,
especially in regions where cassava potentially have comparative economic advan-
taged over other root crops. This chapter seeks to describe the existing and emerging
cassava processing technologies, and utilization of cassava four and starch.

Cassava Flours

Cassava our (CF) refers to the dry, brous and free-owing particulate product
obtained from cassava roots. It is either prepared from milled dried chips or wet
mash. Mashing of cassava root can be achieved by grating, pounding or milling of
peeled roots. The prepared mash may either be fermented or unfermented. When
the unfermented mash is dried and milled, it gives rise to a bland, odorless, white
or off-white particulate product also known as high-quality cassava our (HQCF).
The ours from fermented cassava root are also known as lafun,fufu or pupuru in
Nigeria. Report of the Collaborative Study of Cassava in Africa (COSCA) indicated
that CF and chip production consumed about 45% of cassava roots produced in the
sub-Saharan African region (Nweke, 1994).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research questions
  • The Objectives of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Review of Related Literature
2.2 Empirical Studies
2.3 Theoretical Framework

2.4 Review of Relevant concept on cassava roots processing 
2.5 Summary of the literature

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population of the Study

3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

3.4 Research Instrument

3.5 Validation of the Research Instrument

3.6 Reliability of the Research Instrument

3.7 Research Procedure

3.8 Methods of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Testing of hypothesis

4.3 Discussion of finding

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary of Study

5.3 Summary of Major Findings

5.4 Recommendations

5.5 Limitation of the Study

5.6 Suggestions for Future Research

            References

            Appendix

List of the Tables       

4.1 Analysis of Research Questionnaire Administered            

4.1 Distribution of Respondents by Sex

4.2 Age Distribution

4.3 Marital Status Distribution

4.4 Educational Qualification Distribution

4.5 Years of Service Distribution

4.6 Research Question One

4.7 Research Question Two

4.8 Research Question three

4.9 Research Hypothesis One

4.10 Research Hypothesis Two

4.11 Research Hypothesis Three

 

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