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MOSQUITO LARVICIDAL PROSPECTS OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (L.) AND TAMARINDUS INDICA (L.) SEED EXTRACTS IN LABORATORY AND FIELD BIOASSAYS.

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical characteristics of petroleum ether extracted seeds of the Indian almond, Terminalia catappa (L.) (Combretaceae) and the tamarind, Tamarindus indica(L.)(Fabaceae) for their larvicidal prospects against third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti,

Aedes vittatus and Culex quinquefasciatus species of mosquito were evaluated under

MOSQUITO LARVICIDAL PROSPECTS OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (L.) AND TAMARINDUS INDICA (L.) SEED EXTRACTS IN LABORATORY AND FIELD BIOASSAYS,
MOSQUITO LARVICIDAL PROSPECTS OF TERMINALIA CATAPPA (L.) AND TAMARINDUS INDICA,
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laboratory and simulated field conditions. Dried seeds of both trees were pulverised and extracted with petroleum ether (60 – 80°C) in a Soxhlet apparatus. Physiochemical characteristics of the seed oils were determined using standard protocols. Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS) was used to characterise the photochemical contained in the oils. Distilled water diluted extracts of the seeds at separate triplicate treatment concentrations of 0mL/L (control), 0.5mL/L, 1mL/L, 2mL/L, 4mL/L and 8mL/L were each tested on 25 triplicates (n=75) of each larval species for 24 hours under both conditions. Larval mortality was determined thereafter and the data was subjected to ANOVA to test for treatment based significant differences in mean larval mortality, and to determine species specific median lethal concentrations (LC50). Seed oils’ acid values, percentage free fatty acids, peroxide values and refractive indices of 16.60mgKOH/g, 8.41mgKOH/g, 12.88meq/kg fat and 1.48 respectively in T. indica were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 10.66mgKOH/g, 5.33mgKOH/g, 9.27meq/kg fat and 1.46 respectively in T. catappa. However, the iodine value (39.35meq/kg fat) of T. catappa seed oil was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the 16.18meq/kg fat value of T indica seed oil. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference between the saponificationvalues of 162.75mL/kg and 187.94mL/kg for T. catappa and T. indica seed oils respectively. Sixteen metabolites of mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids including pentadecanoic acid (8.57%), linolelaidic acid (15.30%), elaidic acid (9.15%), stearic acid (5.09%), ricinoleic acid (1.52%), eicosenoic acid (2.83%), eicosanoic acid (2.82%) and heneicosanoic acid (8.77%) were detected in the seed oil of T. indica. Fourteen metabolites of mainly saturated and unsaturated fatty acids including hexadecanoic (palmitic) acid (13.36%), linolelaidic acid (9.97%), oleic acid (11.02%), stearic acid (5.83%) and eicosanoic (arachidic) acid (0.66%) were detected in the seed oil of T. catappa. Terminalia. catappa seed oil caused significantly (p < 0.05) highest larval


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