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A Regression Analysis On The Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost. (a Case Study Of Federal Medical Center Owerri)

Abstract

Smoking of Tobacco, which is rising quickly in developing countries, kills 5.4 million people a year worldwide. This paper explores the impacts of smoking habit by young generation in our society. Using 180 primary data from different public and private university students of Nigeria, the analysis finds that smoking is associated with poor overall health and a variety of short-term adverse health effects among young people and may also be a marker for underlying mental health problems, such as depression among adolescents. The habit of smoking is largely seen among young generation because of lack of the awareness & proper education. There are some other causes like- peer pressures; attractive advertising, desire to look mature etc. & also some biological factors encourage young people to smoke.

1.0 Introduction

Tobacco smoking kills 5.4 million people a year.1 This is likely to increase over the next decades as tobacco consumption in developing countries. In addition is growing to health impacts, smoking diverts poor households’ resources away from other more productive use. For example, Banerjee and Duflo (2007) report that in Mexico, the extremely poor in rural areas spend about 8.1 percent of their budget on tobacco and alcohol. The literature on the determinants of smoking behavior points to a clear link between price increases and a reduction in the number of cigarettes smoked. Increasing taxes on tobacco has therefore often been advocated as a means to reduce smoking. However, recent evidence casts some doubts on the health of tobacco taxes.

Indeed, Adda and Cornaglia (2006) show that the price increases lead smokers to smoke more intensively (i.e., extract more nicotine per cigarette) which is detrimental to health. Youth smoking behavior is the object of both extensive public-policy interest and academic research. This interest arises due to two main reasons. Firstly, most smokers start as youths and youth smoking often is being translated into adult smoking, with the well-known consequences on morbidity and mortality. Bangladesh, with a population of about 150 million people, is one of the poorest countries in the world. About 15 local companies compete for the lower end of the cigarette market. In Bangladesh the habit of smoking is gradually increasing & addiction has come as a dreadful curse on social life. The youths are also the victims of this deep conspiracy.

The young generation of all social classes are now involved in smoking habit. According to Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics- among youth generation in this country (Age 13-18), 4% currently smoke cigarettes (Boys 3%; Girls 1%); 42% of youth (Age 13-18) are exposed to secondhand smoke in public places and 35% of youth are exposed to secondhand smoke at home. This percentage is increasing day by day. It was found that nearly 60 percent of new smokers were under the age of 18 when they first smoked a cigarette. Smoking is associated with poor overall health and a variety of short-term adverse health effects in young people and may also be a marker for underlying mental health problems, such as depression, among adolescents. The habit of smoking is largely seen among poor young generation because of the lack of awareness & proper education.

1.2    Statement of the problem

There are some other causes like- peer pressures; attractive advertising, desire to look mature etc. & also some biological factors encourage young people of all social classes to smoke. Consequently the youth, the future of the nation, are running to the depth of darkness. Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death and morbidity rate globally . A person who smokes one pack per day loses a day of life for every week they smoke (O’Flaherty, 2005). One of the most commonly known smoking-related illnesses is cardiovascular disease, which takes the life of a smoker every minute. Many smokers could identify cardiovascular disease as a leading cause of death for smokers, with younger smokers among those surveyed having the least knowledge about their disease risks (Hardesty and Trupp, 2005).

Smokers are at higher risk than non-smokers of developing cancers of the lung, cervix, mouth, larynx, pharynx, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, and bladder, along with increased risk for developing heart disease and stroke (Bell & Tingen, 2000). It is essential to ensure that adolescent and young people are aware of all the health risks of smoking as adolescence and young adulthood are the most likely stages for initiation of smoking to occur. In these stages, many smokers are often not thinking about their future health potential and the influence of current actions and behaviors. By marketing to the young adults, the tobacco industry is indirectly marketing to adolescents as well. The addiction are supported by the highly transitional nature of young adulthood.

The transition from the adolescent occasional and experimental smoking to that of daily smoking often occurs during young adulthood. It is in this light that this study investigates the Regression Analysis On The Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost. (a Case Study Of Federal Medical Center Owerri).

1.3    Objective of the study

The major purpose of this study is to examine the Regression Analysis On The Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost. (a Case Study Of Federal Medical Center Owerri). Other general objectives of the study are:

  1. To examine the Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on personal health risks.
  2. To examine the Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on potential behaviors.
  3. To examine the Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on high risk behaviors .

1.4    Research Question

The study sought to provide answers to the following research questions:

  1. What is the Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on personal health risks?
  2. What is the Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on potential behaviors?
  3. What is the Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on high risk behaviors?

1.5    Research Hypothesis

The following hypotheses were raised for this research;

  1. There is no significant Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on personal health risks.
  2. There is no significant Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on potential behaviors.
  3. There is no significant Impact Of Smoking, Level Of Exercise, Weight On Medical Cost based on high risk behaviors.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Table of Contents

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

  • Background to the study
  • Statement of the Problem
  • Research questions
  • The Objectives of the Study
  • Significance of the Study
  • Scope of the Study
  • Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.1 Review of Related Literature
2.2 Empirical Studies
2.3 Theoretical Framework

2.4 Review of Relevant concept
2.5 Summary of the literature

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

3.2 Population of the Study

3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

3.4 Research Instrument

3.5 Validation of the Research Instrument

3.6 Reliability of the Research Instrument

3.7 Research Procedure

3.8 Methods of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Data presentation and analysis

4.2 Testing of hypothesis

4.3 Discussion of finding

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Introduction

5.2 Summary of Study

5.3 Summary of Major Findings

5.4 Recommendations

5.5 Limitation of the Study

5.6 Suggestions for Future Research

            References

            Appendix

List of the Tables       

4.1 Analysis of Research Questionnaire Administered            

4.1 Distribution of Respondents by Sex

4.2 Age Distribution

4.3 Marital Status Distribution

4.4 Educational Qualification Distribution

4.5 Years of Service Distribution

4.6 Research Question One

4.7 Research Question Two

4.8 Research Question three

4.9 Research Hypothesis One

4.10 Research Hypothesis Two

4.11 Research Hypothesis Three

 

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