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A SURVEY OF WILD MAMMALS OF EGBEDA COMMUNITY EMOHUA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA RIVERS STATE

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

Mammals are animals that have backbone. They are vertebrate; all mammals are worm-blooded. They can regulate their body temperature; female mammals produce milks to nourish their young. Almost all mammals give birth to live young (except for the platypus and echidria). Mammals also posses hair some common examples of mammals includes rodents, deer, whales, bears, dogs, lions, monkeys, crocodile, elephant. (Agbelusi,1994).

The world is filled with an amazing diversity of wildlife. Some species are beautiful, others bizarre, and some are scary but they all are important and deserve our protection. Unfortunately, many species are declining at rapid pace due to human activity. Habitat destruction, climate change, pollution and illegal hunting are just some of the many threats to our fellow creature. (Anadu,1982). It is up to us to protect them and ensure that feature generation will enjoy a world teaming with wildlife.

National wildlife federation’s wildlife adoption program lets you symbolically adopt your favourite species and at the same time support our important work protecting wildlife and connecting people to nature (Ewa, 1984).

Scientist has identified over 5,400 mammal species on earth. According to the international union for conservation of nature (IUCN), 21% of mammals worldwide are known to be threatened or extinct. One of the most threatened orders of mammals is the primate, which includes gorillas and monkeys. Over 49 percent of the 414 species of private are threatened or endangered (Powell, 1993).

There are few places left on the planet where the impact of people has not been felt. Zoologists have explore and left a footprint on nearly every corner of the globe as population and needs grow, we are leaving less and less room for wildlife. Wildlife is under threat from many different kinds of human activities from direct destroying habitat to spreading invasive species and disease. Most ecosystems are facing multiple threats; each new threat puts additional stress on already weakened ecosystem and their wildlife (Shodeinde,1993).

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

This study was planned as a review of knowledge of wildlife in Egbeda community: Given the mandate in most formal region, for co management of resources on multiple use protected areas and indigenous land (Ruiz-Perez, 2005), the recognized need to secure the role of wild mammal as meat for the food security of poor and isolated human population in the tropics (Nasi,2011), and the continued interest of researchers in understanding the consequence of defaunation for forest regeneration, it is of critical importance that robust, accurate methodologies be used to assess hunted mammals population and inform their management.

1.2     NEED TO CARRY OUT THE STUDY

The need to carry-out this study is to examine or to find out and review the knowledge of wild mammal in Egbeda community, Rivers State located in South South geo-political zone. Also to let the public know that wild mammal do not only serves food meat alone, but also as important element of cultural practice and socio-economic system in a nation. The study also unveils the different species of wild mammal find in this region.

1.3     SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY

The significant of this study to the reader and to the general public is to know the different types of species of wild mammals that really exists in this region, and also to know the impact of hunting on the existence of wild mammals in the region.

1.4     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

In this project work, we shall be discussing vividly on the survey of wild mammal in Egbeda community, we shall also identify the mammals collected from the field study base on their local names, common names, scientific names, their habitat method of collecting this species and also their mode of feeding. And also, the material and methods, procedure and result shall also be in this project of the survey of wild mammal of Egbeda community, as the researcher will like to concentrate mainly on the different species whose image is shown in this project work.

1.5     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The objective of this study includes the following:

1)      To letting the people know more and to understand different species of wild mammals that exist in Egbeda communities and its region.

2)      To identify this species using their local native names, their common names, scientific names and their habitats.

3)      To an extent known the impact of defaunation on wild mammals.

1.6     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Key Words

Mammals: Mammals refers to animals that belong to the class mammalia, characterize by being warm-blooded, having hair and feeding milk to its young ones.

Vertebrates: This refers to animal having back bone.

Fauna: Animals considered as a group; especially those of a particular country, region.

Population: A collection of animal of particular species, sharing a particular characteristic of interest, most often that of living in a given area.

Species: A rank in the classification of organism, below genus and above subspecies, a tax on at that rank.

Survey: A particular view, or an examination, especially an official examination, of all the part or particulars of a thing, with a design to ascertain the condition, quantity.

Bio-geographic: The study of the geographical arrangement of plant and animals.

Terrestrial: Living or growing in or on land (as oppose to other habitat) not aquatic.

Arboreal: Living among trees or any tree-dwelling creature.

Climate Change: The change in long term manifestation of weather and other atmospheric condition in a given area or country.

Wildlife: Living animal and living plant growing in their natural environment.

Threatened Species: These are species which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.

Critical Endangered Species: This is species which has been categorized as facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild.

Vulnerable Species: Which has been categorize as likely to become endangered unless circumstances threatening its survival.

Low Risk Species: This is one with population levels high enough to ensure its survival.

Conservation Dependent Species: Is a species which has been categorized as dependent on conservation efforts to prevent it from becoming threatened with extinction.

Least Concern Species: Is a species which has been categorized as evaluated but not qualified for any other category.

Extinction: This is the end of a species of mammal.


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